Article accepted for print: 14.11.2016
To identify the psychological characteristics of the stress response among medical students 77 students of 1 course of the Medical School of V.N. KarazinKharkiv National University (24 boys and 53 girls) aged from 16 to 23 years were examined to determine the academic stress by a test developed by U.V.Shcherbatyh.
The most powerful factors in the formation of stress disorders among all students, regardless of gender, have been irregular meals and a large academic load. The most prominent causes of stress among young men were large academic load (25%), irregular meals (25%) and the lack of textbooks (25%). Girls have revealed most sensitive causes of stress us their inability to organize their daily routine (38%), irregular meals 36%, a large academic load (28%), shyness and timidity (28%). Among female students of the Medical Scholl the high-risk of stress disorder indicators was observed in 24% more than in male population, with predominance in the total number of risk factors, as well as in their degree of severity.
stress, formationfactors, stress resistance, gender differences.
University is a pivotal period in a young adult's life; however, for some, university may be a recipe for disaster due to the stress and pressures that come along with university education. The learning process built on the basis of the sessions, - short periods of time with the examinations and tests, - gives a serious burden on the adaptive capacity of the organism and causes stress [1, 2].A huge burden placed on vulnerable psyche of a young man, often not firmly established. The importance of studying the features of stress among students is at the stage of development. The influence of the difference between social environment and culture in the formation of stress among students is defined. More pronounced level of stress among students of medical schools is identified:medicalstudentsconsequentlysufferfromdepression, anxiety, andstress[4 - 8]. Some studies indicated that examination and examination results were the highest causes of stress in students . Australian study found the overseas students manifested significantly higher degrees of various stress indicators than did the local students .Feelings of loneliness and learning burnout negatively influenced students' overall academic experience and their perceptions of stress.In addition, further study of gender differences in the formation of stress and peculiarities of stress resistance is particularly important [2, 8].
Purpose of the study. Study of preconditions and factors of stress formation among students of both genders, the definition of stress features among medical students and its gender characteristics.
Materials and methods.
To identify the psychological characteristics of the stress response among medical students 77 students of 1 course of the Medical School of V.N. KarazinKharkiv National University(24 boys and 53 girls) aged from 16 to 23 years were examined to determine the academic stress by a test developed by U.V.Shcherbatyh.This test allows you to specify the main causes of academic stress, identify the symptoms of stress and the main stress reduction techniques by students. All students are were considered us healthy people.
Processing of the results was performed using Microsoft Office XL 2010 Software .
Features of the causes of stress are shown in Table 1, the structure of the causes of stress among medical students of both genders are given in Diagram 1.
Features of the causes of stress (UV ShCherbatyh questionnaire)
Diagram 1. The structure of causes of stress (UV ShCherbatyh questionnaire).
As a first approximation, significantly qualitative and quantitative predominance of factors leading to the stress formationwas observed among girls.
Thus, among young men only four representatives (16%) had 3 or more compared with an increased risk (more than 8 points). Girls statistic was less optimistic: 21 student (40%) had a risk of stress disorderdeveloping.
The most prominent causes of stress among young men were large academic load (25%), irregular meals (25%) and the lack of textbooks (25%). Girls have revealedmost sensitive causes of stress us their inability to organize their daily routine (38%), irregular meals 36%, a large academic load (28%), shyness and timidity (28%). The most powerful factors in the formation of stress disorders among all students, regardless of gender, have been irregular meals and a large academic load.
It should be noted that financial limitations were perceived more painful by boys. Also, interesting fact was that the girls had lower factor "problem of living together with other students," proving higher adaptable possibilities of females in the social environment and a lighter adaptability of the them during working in a group.
Discussion.Levels of stress factors presence correspond to those in previous studies [3 - 11]. In contradistinctiontoCanadianstudy,wherewerenosignificantgenderdifferencesinacademicstress (however, femalesshowedhigherlevelsofsocialsupportcoping) ,in our study, a significant difference of the presence and severity of factors of stress disorders formation among boys and girls has been identified. Also, a greater capacity of girls to willingness to work in a grouphas been identified, which is consistent with previous studies[2, 8].
Conclusions. Among female students of the Medical Schollthe high-risk of stress disorder indicators was observed in 24% more than in male population, with predominance in the total number of risk factors, as well as in their degree of severity. The high frequency of expressed degree of the predictors of stress reactionsformation among girls compared with the corresponding figures among young men shows the influence of gender, which requires greater attention and further study.
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